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Apollo's Muses or fine love: the central combination in Casa's ideal, as also exemplified by Bembo. CL III Quirin's hill or Aventine: Casa thinks of the two hills facing each other across the valley of the Circus Maximus, the Pala- tine, associated with Romulus-Quirinus, and the Aventine, associated with Romulus's twin, Remus. In the northwest sector of the Palatine, Casa's patron.


Cardinal Farnese, created a sumptuous garden in the relics of the Roman emperors' palace. Bargul: mentioned by Livy Pieria: region in Thessaly sacred to the Muses. Camena: Italian water goddess, identified as an Italic equivalent for the Muses by Roman poets from the beginning of their literature. Casa takes learned pains to attribute Latin as well as Greek authority to his friend and to emphasize Italian values. Ubaldin: Ubaldino Bandinelli d.

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The closing display of Horatian equanimity papers over contra- dictions that must have been acute when Casa composed the epistle in see Introduction, part II. Molza was a rascal. Ubaldino disprized Bembo. In any event, all three were dead by the time of Casa's crisis and retreat: Molza since , Bembo since , and Ubaldino in The theme of harmful and harmless passions survives to find its place in the emergent context of the book.

Literary linkage: Euripides Archilochus , Horace. Synopsis: On the offensive again, Casa redoubles his polemical force and directs it specifically now against women. He reviles woman's very name and nature, which he treats as a prime cause of the social ills he denounced in the city and himself.

English translation of 'vivere (di)'

His onslaught is so violent as to divert attention to his own nature and suggest that he has a penchant for dramatic poses and blaming others, whether the flatter- ing crowd or hypocritical critics. The more tempted and seduced he feels, the more he blames and derides. By this standard, the threat of careerist ambition is relatively slight: it seduced him only in mid-life. Women fascinated him earlier and longer. Comment Declamatory rather than conversational, the polemic carries Casa to a new pitch.

He has chosen a short passage that builds two charges a- gainst women: lustfulness and wastefulness. Twice already he has used lust figuratively: he identified Helen's insatiability with his own ambi- tion in CL II ; and he contrasted the woman of the city, Amaryllis sc. This new polemical force comes with a shift in genre, from satire to one of its progenitors and cohorts. Casa also has the precedent of Francesco Berni, as well as the frequent attacks on women in writers like Boccaccio, and his own tract against marrying, which emphasized the luxuriousness of women Santosuosso Vita, Also, as he had in CL II, Casa draws on tragedy for dramatic punch, here translating from Euripides' Hippolytus the hero's infamous diatribe against the female kind.

The tragic models serve as vehicles for Casa's strongest and most conflicted feelings. CL V 89 Notes children are better bought than produced by women. Casa renders thirty-five Greek verses into thirty-eight in Latin, following rather closely. In the drama, the celibate hero has just learned from a servant that his step- mother lusts for him; his reaction begins with this diatribe.

Casa adopts it without frame, identifying the hero's voice with his own persona. He put greater distance between himself and the tragic character in the Helen simile [CL Casa had written a youthful tract in praise of celibacy. CLV Genre: epode. Literary linkage: Horace, Epodes 2. Synopsis: Blaming builds towards action and moves the story along. On the crest of his polemics, Casa declares that he will leave Rome. He takes responsibility, no longer calling on others to drive him out. To his moral reasons for going, he adds a physical argument, describing himself as old and stricken by gout, eager to exchange a pestilential Roman climate for a more salubrious Venice.

Yet fascination with Rome threatens to break his resolve. He renews resolve by claiming the high ground of civic order: in Venice, he says, the constitutional climate is balanced and proper, war is subject to civilian control, and Pru- dence both obeys and rules. He caps this argument to himself with a political myth from Greece and Rome: Justice leaving human so- ciety as the Iron Age began and returning for a renewed Golden Age. In his version of the myth. Justice flees corrupt Italy and takes refuge in the ideal republic of Venice.

Comment For his declaration of resolve to seek a remedy in Venice, Casa turns to a less venomous kind of epode. Casa's story of retreat, however, most closely parallels Horace's second epode with its parable of the money-lender who called in loans and left the greedy city for the simpler pleasures of country life, which Horace elaborates in full detail only to undercut abruptly at the end, saying that his man was back in town by the end of the month and the money out again in loans.

In Casa's case reversal was not to be so comical and quick. Notes resolve to leave for Venice, more salubrious than the territory around Rome, better for a body aging and afflicted by gout.

Lati: from the Tyrrhenian Sea off central Italy, the wind brings rain to the region around Rome, Latium Italian Lazio , which is no longer so disease ridden, since the coastal marshes have been cleared. With artful emphasis, Casa defines his posture, placing key terms of place in important positions: "Tyrrheni" before the caesura in the hexameter, "Lati" at verse end in the dimeter, then the Venetians directly after himself, "me," revealed as the one in flight.

The decline of their fortunes has made the territory politically less favorable to Casa: he expresses his disillusionment in terms of climate, health, and age. He vacillated about going letter to Ludovico Beccadelli, who succeeded him as nuncio in Venice, 15 April , Opere [] ; by Sep- tember he was in Venice. Faerno: the scholarly and poetic friend typifies the society that Casa leaves with regret cf. CL Virgil, Bucolics 4. Casa compresses the myth and uses it to draw a flattering contrast between the rest of Italy where his Farnese patrons are momentarily in retreat and the Republic of Venice.


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For other appropriations of the myth, see Frances Yates, Astraea London, , West: Hesperia western land , brought into play by Virgil in the Aeneid, calling it the old Greek name for Italy. As a generic term, it served Virgil to suggest the promised land, which gradu- ally through prophecy was revealed to the exiled hero Aeneas. It acquired associations also with the mythic Golden Age.

The Virgilian idea of a "promised land" underlies Casa's choice of the term just when he feels that promise and hope are lost cf. CL VI Genre: lyric ode. Meter: Asclepiad [type 2].

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Synopsis: The move from Rome to Venice marks a turning point in the story. Far at last from corrupting influence, secure in an environ- ment he could idolize as ethically supportive, Casa begins by reaf- firming the ideal of literary life and the value of writing. Now he gives the ideal new emphasis in the oxymoronic expressions ope- rosa otia busy leisure and quies gnaua industrious ease , which sug- gest a program both ethical and aesthetic for Casa's reformed life.

Horace's choice of meter determined Casa's: the second type within the group of lyric meters known as Asclepiadean. As in CL I and II, the echo of a famous classical poem signals a progression in genre, here inaugurating the cycle of odes. From the same ode, Priuli adapted one phrase for a very different theme: where Horace told Virgil that he could not persuade death, even if he played the lyre "more coaxingly than Thracian Orpheus," Priuli remonstrated with a girl for rejecting a poet, even though he "measured songs with an Etruscan lyre more coaxingly than Thracian Orpheus" in Johannes Paulus Ubal- ' D.


Casa revels in the paradoxical jux- taposition of opposites, quies gnava calm intensity and operosa otia repose. Leisure is a defining topic of the pastoral trope, e. Aegean: generic names where Casa mentioned a specific mountain and island, Pelion and Carpathos. Greeks: the two classical cultures. Arno: doubling the name, Casa intensifies the expressive effect.

He identifies Florence by its etymology — "in flower. CL IIL, "wealth my careful father made. A simile in Horace's grandest manner. The catalogue of luxuries lost threatens to overwhelm the focus on modesty.

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By the end, it seems that scholarship, too, has suffered a reversal. The ethi- cal life proves to be as vulnerable as the life of greed to For- tune's shifts. CL V, the initial praise of physical healthfulness and final praise of civic health. Further, more specialized, study of Casa's ring structures and how they relate to those of Horace would need to incorporate the subtle and illuminating considerations by R.